Objectives and Introduction
- List some of the more important inventions, discoveries, and innovations of the 19th century.
- Describe how the railroad helped with industrialization.
- Relate how the workforce source determined the wages paid.
- Discuss the purposes of unions and the initial failure of strikes.
- Argue the validity of Darwin’s theory of the survival of the fittest.
- Contrast assimilation and exclusion of immigrants.
- Discuss the features of an urban machine.
- Describe how leisure differed amongst the elite, middle, and low-income urbanites.
Even before the Civil War ended, immigration and migration to cities and away from rural areas occurred. Farm life no longer represented the backbone of America in the South as it had previously. As a result of the different and often frigid climates, farm life was not as essential in the North. The rapid growth of industrialization saw cities explode with population. The railroad system brought many from the farms into the cities. Steam ships brought immigrants from almost every part of Europe, as well as from Japan, China, Australia, and even from locations in South America. Social services, governments, mass transportation, and housing were initially unable to keep up with the influx of people into cities. However, strategic planning and common sense prevailed to make city living comfortable for some and at least tolerable for others.